The Father of Space Travel
Julius Oberth, born June 25, 1894 in the Transylvanian town
of Hermannstadt, is, along with the Russian Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
and the American Robert Goddard, one of the three founding
fathers of rocketry and modern astronautics. Interestingly,
although these three pioneers arrived at many of the same
conclusions about the possibility of a rocket escaping the
earth’s gravitational pull, they seem to have done so without
any knowledge of each other’s work.
interest in rocketry was sparked at the age of 11. His mother
gave him a copy of Jules Verne's From The Earth To The
Moon, a book which he later recalled he read "at least
five or six times and, finally, knew by heart.” It was a
young Oberth, then, that discovered that many of Verne’s
calculations were not simply fiction, and that the very
notion of interplanetary travel was not as fantastic as
had been assumed by the scientific community.
the age of 14 Oberth had already envisioned a “recoil rocket”
that could propel itself through space by expelling exhaust
gases (from a liquid fuel) from its base. He had no resources
with which to test his model, but continued to develop his
theories, all the while teaching himself, from various books,
the mathematics that he knew he’d need if he was to ever
challenge gravity’s dominion.
Oberth realized that the higher the ratio between propellant
and rocket mass the faster his rocket would be able to travel.
Problem: as the rocket expends fuel, its mass (not including
fuel) remains the same, in essence becoming heavier and
heavier in relation to the engine’s ability to provide thrust.
Solution: stages. Hermann Oberth reasoned that as one section
of the rocket cylinder becomes expended, and therefore also
becomes dead weight, why not just get rid of it? This idea
is especially important, in light of the fact that in space,
velocity is additive. Oberth wrote, “the requirements for
stages developed out of these formulas. If there is a small
rocket on top of a big one, and if the big one is jettisoned
and the small one is ignited, then their speeds are added.”
In 1912 Hermann Oberth enrolled in the University of Munich
to study medicine. His scholarly pursuits, however, were
interrupted by the First World War. In an indirect way,
Hermann Oberth’s participation in the war, mostly with the
medical unit , was, in some ways, fortunate for the future
of rocketry. Hermann Oberth stated it best when he wrote
that one of the most important things he learned in his
years as an enlisted medic, was that he "did not want to
be a doctor”. When the war was over, Professor Oberth returned
to the University of Munich, but this time to study Physics
with several of the most notable scientists of the time.
1922 Oberth’s doctoral thesis on rocketry was rejected.
He later described his reaction: “I refrained from writing
another one, thinking to myself: Never mind, I will prove
that I am able to become a greater scientist than some of
you, even without the title of doctor.” He continued: “In
the United States, I am often addressed as a doctor. I should
like to point out, however, that I am not such and shall
never think of becoming one.” And on education he had this
to say: “Our educational system is like an automobile which
has strong rear lights, brightly illuminating the past.
But looking forward things are barely discernible.”
In 1923, the year after the rejection of his dissertation,
he published the 92 page Die Rakete zu den Planetenraumen
(The Rocket into Planetary Space). This was followed
by a longer version (429 pages) in 1929, which was internationally
celebrated as a work of tremendous scientific importance.
That same year, he lost the sight in his left eye in an
experiment while working as a technical advisor to German
director Fritz Lang on his film, “Girl in the Moon.”
the thirties Oberth took on a young assistant who would
later become one of the leading scientists in rocketry research
for the German and then the United States governments; his
name was Werhner von Braun. They worked together again during
the Second World War, developing the V2 rocket, the “vengeance
weapon” for the German Army, and again after the war, in
the United States at the U.S. Army’s Ballistic Missile Agency
in Huntsville, Alabama. However, three years later Professor
Oberth retired and returned to Germany.
Hermann Oberth is one of the three founding fathers of rocketry
and modern astronautics is indisputable. That all three
have advanced the science of rocketry is also indisputable
- Professor Oberth, though, possessed a vision that set
him apart, even from these great men. In 1923 he wrote in
the final chapter of Die Rakete zu den Planetenraumen
(The Rocket into Planetary Space), “The rockets...
can be built so powerfully that they could be capable of
carrying a man aloft.” In 1923, then, he became the first
to prove that rockets could put a man into space.
all accounts Hermann Oberth was a humble man (especially
considering his achievements) who had, in his own words,
simple goals. He outlined them in the last paragraph of
his 1957 book Man into Space: “To make available
for life every place where life is possible. To make inhabitable
all worlds as yet uninhabitable, and all life purposeful.”
Julius Oberth died in a Nuremberg hospital in West Germany
on December 29, 1989 at the age of 95.